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Treatment guidelines

Teeth loss in the maxilla initiates residual ridge/alveolar resorption, especially in the anterior region, which is flared labially. The consequences of this resorption is a gradual medial or palatal shift of the crest of the maxilla. This...

Patient assessment
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Treatment guidelines

Oral implants are usually placed in the mandibular and maxillary bone and sometimes in additional bone structures such as the zygomatic, pterygoid or vomer bone. In order to identify relevant anatomical structures, diagnostic evaluation of the anatomy...

Radiology
Implants in compromised sites
Patient assessment
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Treatment guidelines

The primary goal is a proper oral function. This implies not only chewing but also speaking, smiling. Patients’ adaptability varies enormously. Some are satisfied with removable dentures, others object to the esthetics of...

Local factors
Patient assessment
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Sinus lifting

Less than 4-6 mm of vertical residual bone height in the posterior segment of the maxilla is an indication for a sinus augmentation procedure [Esposito]. The external access to the maxillary sinus is carried out at a lateral buccal alveolar...

Posterior implants
Sinus augmentation
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Treatment guidelines

The surgeon should be standing or be seated behind the supine patient. Bilateral truncular anesthesia is needed. The incision can be crestal or at a distance in the labial fold. Presence of keratinized tissue both labially and palatally should...

Edentulous treatments
Soft tissue management
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Treatment guidelines

Incision can be made either on top of the crest or at some distance in the labial fold. The outcome for both approaches seems comparable. A sagittal release incision at the midline eases the reflection of the labial mucoperiosteum. It is logical to try to achieve...

Edentulous treatments
Soft tissue management
Implant prosthetics
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Treatment guidelines

The majority of commercially available implants are variations of Brånemark’s original design of a screw which he coined as 'fixtures'. This has been the starting point for numerous current market variations that incorporate convergent themes of implant material...

Implant designs
Implant surfaces
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Treatment guidelines

Any intra-oral surgical intervention begins with the incision and finishes with a suture or gluing. Indications for a crestal incision include one-stage surgeries where the implant or abutment is non-submerged and is piercing into the oral...

Edentulous treatments
Soft tissue management
icon-treatment_guides_article

Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Anesthesia

The choice of anesthesia depends on many variables including the complexity of treatment, duration of treatment, need for patient awareness and the response during treatment, only to name a few. In general, the clinician and patient should discuss the...

Patient assessment
Preoperative procedures
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Treatment guidelines

The aims of peri-implant soft tissue management in the edentulous mandible are the eventual reconstruction of attached gingiva or immobilizing the soft tissue at the implant-soft tissue interface. Vestibuloplasty means deepening of the...

Soft tissue management
Peri-implant therapy
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Treatment guidelines

In the edentulous upper jaw implant insertion can be limited due to the adjacent anatomical structures (nasal floor, maxillary sinus). Less than 5-6 mm in height and 6 mm in width requires augmentation before implant placement....

Bone grafting and regeneration
Sinus augmentation
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Treatment guidelines

Teeth extractions are followed by a reduction of the bucco-lingual as well as the vertical dimension of the residual alveolar ridge. The ensuing resorption is progressive and even the basal jaw may become involved. In the lower jaw, the....

Radiology
Systemic factors
Patient assessment
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Wound closure

Wound closure ensures and accelerates wound healing by protecting the site and influencing migration of keratinocytes over the granulation tissue. Some wound eversion maximizes epidermal approximation. Square knots, with two ties in one direction and a reverse...

Soft tissue management
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Treatment guidelines

As described in Patient Assessment, a thorough evaluation of patient factors influencing whether to proceed with surgical therapy is relevant.
Depending on the tpe of surgery prescribe pre-operative medication (for example antibiotic coverage), if...

Patient assessment
Preoperative procedures
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Treatment guidelines

Physiological salivary output is 0.75 to 1.5 liters per day, with most originating from the submandibular glands. Saliva is a lubricant and has a complex set of protective and healing functions for the oral cavity. It adheres instantly to...

Local factors
Patient assessment