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Treatment guidelines

Single tooth

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Biologic complications

Extraction of teeth with persistent periapical lesions requires a specific drilling protocol to remove infected bone, to reach healthy trabecular bone and start up a bleeding. Residual dens sclerotic bone may harbor latent pathogenic microorganisms for a...

Complications & long-term success
Peri-implant therapy
Peri-implantitis
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Comprehensive treatment concepts, Pterygoid implants

In the edentulous upper jaw the placement of implants can be challenging due to limited bone quantity and the presence of the maxillary sinus. Pterygoid implants have high success rates, similar bone loss levels to those of ...

Posterior implants
Edentulous treatments
Implants in compromised sites
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Pterygoid implants

In the edentulous upper jaw the placement of implants can be challenging due to limited bone quantity and the presence of the maxillary sinus. Pterygoid implants present an alternative option to use residual bone for implant anchorage and to overcome the need for...

Posterior implants
Implants in compromised sites
Success & failure
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Zygomatic implants

Indications

Zygomatic implants have been documented as a an alternative for the rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior maxilla with both the classical two stage and immediate loading protocols. Zygomatic implants avoid grafting and sinus lift procedures and therefore contribut...

Posterior implants
Implants in compromised sites
Success & failure
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Sinus lifting

Less than 4-6 mm of vertical residual bone height in the posterior segment of the maxilla is an indication for a sinus augmentation procedure [Esposito]. The external access to the maxillary sinus is carried out at a lateral buccal alveolar...

Posterior implants
Sinus augmentation
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Biologic complications

This is the reversible inflammatory process in the soft tissues around functioning implants. Peri-implant mucositis occurs in almost 60% of subjects (± 30% of sites), restored with implants. Diagnosis is stated by clinical examination: redness, ...

Peri-implantitis
Peri-implant therapy
Local factors
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Post-placement

At this appointment, a careful evaluation of the patient's oral hygiene and soft tissue response is performed and adjustments made as needed. A daily home-care program must be customized to the individual's ability to clean the...

Aftercare / follow up
Fixed prosthetics
Oral hygiene instructions
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Inflammation and infection

Inflammation can be limited to the soft tissue around the implant (mucositis) or involve the underlying bone tissue as well (peri-implantitis). Infection can be caused by various risk factors, such as inadequate hygiene and patient compliance...

Peri-implantitis
Aftercare / follow up
Peri-implant therapy
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Post-surgical recommendations

Inform patient about adequate actions after surgery. Leave around the clock emergency contact numbers in case of urgent complications. Plan or delegate to the referring dentist postoperative recall visits, at day 1 or 2, day 8 - 14 and 4 – 6 weeks...

Aftercare / follow up
Oral hygiene instructions
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Infection - microbiological diagnostics

Presence/number of implants influences aerobe and anaerobe species in saliva and on tongue in edentulism. Subgingival microbiota in periimplantitis vary according to studies. Less periodontal pathogens than in partial edentulism. Prevotella nigrescens,...

Peri-implantitis
Aftercare / follow up
Peri-implant therapy
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Oral hygiene instructions

All tissue surfaces, prosthesis surfaces and implant surfaces should be accessible by oral hygiene aids like toothbrushes, interdental brushes and dental floss or dental tape. It is paramount that, during treatment planning...

Aftercare / follow up
Fixed prosthetics
Oral hygiene instructions
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Professional oral hygiene

The regular recall control appointment, at least every 6 months, should comprise a hygiene check by the dental/oral hygienist or other auxiliary, and include professional cleaning of the restoration, prosthetic components, sulcus and any...

Aftercare / follow up
Fixed prosthetics
Oral hygiene instructions
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Treatment guidelines

Edentulous

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Smoking

Smoking and nicotine consumption have a constrictive effect on blood vessels thereby reducing blood supply. It increases the susceptibility to periodontal inflammatory diseases, dry extraction sockets and wound healing...

Peri-implantitis
Systemic factors
Patient assessment